70011-Kenya-KCSE-S4-2018-Geography-Practice-Past-Exam-Premium Welcome to your 70011-Kenya-KCSE-S4-2018-Geography-Practice-Past-Exam-Premium Exam Title: KCSE Past Papers 2018 Geography paper 1 Exam ID: 70001-Rwanda-P6-2015-SET-Practice-Past-Exam-Premium Country: KENYA LEVEL: KSCE (Secondary Leaving) SUBJECT: Geography paper 1 YEAR: 2018 TYPE: CBE (Computer Based Exam) INSTRUCTIONS and Notes: This is a practice past exam that was prepared by Standard Gateway, an education and technology focused organization and out partners. The exam shall assess examinee preparedness in a computer based format We ask that no one shall copy, redistribute without appropriate express written approval by Standard Gateway staff, in ensuring the exam is beneficial to other examinees ALL QUESTIONS ARE TYPE OF MULTIPLE ANSWERS,MULTIPLE CHOICE,TRUE OR FALSE AND FILL IN THE GAP CHOOSE YOUR ONE OR MULTIPLE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS BY CLICK. DURATION: 1Hours (May or may not be enforced in the exam), Examinee May have to Self Monitor This exam is a lite Version Accessible for free - A Premium Version is accessible at a minor fee through purchase of an access Code Define the term atmosphereThe Atmosphere is the layer of gases and vapour between the moon, the earth and the sunThe Atmosphere is the layer of gases and vapour favorable to organism during gestationThe Atmosphere is the layer of gases and vapour which surrounds the earthThe Atmosphere is the layer of toxic gases and toxic vapour which separate the earth and the moonAll of the AboveNone of the Above State the composition of the inner core of the earthIt is composed of iron and nickel and it is solid in natureIt has very high temperature/ about 5000°C to 6000°CThe average density is 13-17gm/cc./very high densityIt has very high temperature/ about 1000°C to 2000°CIt is composed of Aluminum and Magma Name three types of foldsUnder Fold, Asymmetrical fold, Over fold.Simple/Symmetrical Fold, Asymmetrical fold, Over fold.Recumbent fold, Nappe fold./overthrust, Isoclinal foldesoclinal Fold, Asymmetrical fold, Over fold.None of the Above State three factors that determine the folding of crustal rocksCrustal rocks should be in layers/sedimentary.The rocks should be young in order to bend.The forces operating on the crustal rocks should be compressional.The amount of pressure applied should be high.All of the above (Any of the three above)None of Above The diagram below represents some volcanic features. Use it to answer the questions belowName the features marked P, Q, R and SQ-Vent, R-Matholith, S-LopolithR-Batholith, Q-Vent, S-LoplithR-Batholith, Q-Lopolith, S-VentQ-Vent, R-Batholith, S-Lopolith Identify the main characteristics of the ocean waterOcean water is saline/salty.The temperature of ocean water is the same horizontally and vertically.Ocean water varies in densityOcean water is is in constant movementOcean water is potable Give three factors that influence wave depositionThe depth of the water should be deep along the coast Configuration of the coastline/change in the alignment of coastline.The shore should have a gentle gradient.The breaking waves should have strong swash and a weak backwash/constructive waves.There should be Ample materials to be depositsAll of the above List the three types of dunesBarchansCircular DunesSeif dunes/longitudinal/linear Transverse/wave dunes.Star dunes DraasHorizontal Dunes Identify two processes through which wind transports materials in arid areasSurface creep/tractionAirwave/DilatationSuspension SaltationAll of the AboveNone of the above What is a rockTrue or false: A rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of mineral particles forming part of the earth’s crustTrueFalse The following are examples of plutonic igneous rocksGraphiteSyeniteHephelineDiabaseNone of the above Describe the processes of formation of the following types of sedimentary rocks: Mechanically formedSediments used to form the rocks are derived from weathering of existing rocksThe weathered materials are transported by wind/ice/waterThe weathered materials are mixed are treated in the treatment chamberThe weathered materials are deposited in layers on land or seaThey are then compacted, and cemented into sedimentary rocksThey are extracted and chemically mixed to form graphite materials Describe the processes of formation of the following types of sedimentary rocks: Organically formedThey derive from both organic and inorganic processes typically on the north poleThese rocks are formed from remains of dead plants and animals./fossilsThese remains accumulate in the oceans/basins/land, in layersThey are mixed with water and cured on the bottom of the seaThe materials are deposited in layers/strataThe accumulated materials are compressed, compacted and cemented into sedimentary rocks State the characteristics of rocksSome rocks have jointsRocks have a varied degree of hardnessRocks have cleavageRocks have a varied textureRocks have different colours Some rocks have lustreRocks have the same specific densityRocks have a streakRocks have different mineralsRocks have identical structures. You are planning to carry out a field study on rocks within the local environment. List three methods you would use to record dataPhotographing/video recordingLabelling samplesPhone CallDrawing diagrams/sketchesAll of the above You are planning to carry out a field study on rocks within the local environment. State problems you are likely to encounterRecognition by your peersDiscovery of new RockAccidents may occurInaccessibility of some areas with rocksFatigue due to difficult terrainUnfavourable weather conditions that are heavy rains, high temperaturesAttack by wild animals/snake bitesVisit by superiorDifficulty identifying some rocksDifficulty breaking some rocksAll of the above You are planning to carry out a field study on rocks within the local environment. Give some economic uses of rocks you are likely to identifySome rocks are used for constructionSome rocks are a Source of fossil fuelSome are used for making carvingsall rocks are precious rocksSome are sources of valuable mineralsSome are tourist’s attractionsSome rocks store underground water/for irrigationRocks weather to form soils for agricultureSome rocks transform in organismsSome rocks for example limestone is a raw material/cement manufactureAll of the above Identify the two types of earthquake wavesBody waves/primary/secondaryOcean waves/primary/secondaryLake waves/love/RayleighSurface waves/love/RayleighNone of the above Describe the two ways through which the strength of an earthquake is measuredThe strength of an earthquake is measured by its intensityThe strength of an earthquake is measured by its magnitudeThe strength of an earthquake is measured by its ForceThe strength of an earthquake is measured by its Duration Explain how vulcanicity causes earthquakes. Which statement is TrueSudden displacement of crustal rocks during vulcanicity causes tremorsViolent volcanic eruptions/violent emissions of the volcanic gases can shake/shatter the rocks/tremorsIncrease in carbon emission accelerate vulcanizationAfter a volcanic eruption, a large void is created below the crust which causes the crustal rocks to sink due to gravity; this causes the earth’s surface to shakeMagma movement within the crust can cause tremorsA sudden eruption of molten magma under the oceans can cause earth tremors as the water on the seafloor violently expandsDeforestation causes tremors Name four major earthquake zones of the worldThe Great Rift Valley beltThe Mediterranean — Upper Rift Valley BeltMid-Atlantic Ocean beltThe Mediterranean — Himalayan beltThe circum- Pacific belt. /ring of fireMid-Indian Ocean belt Explain some effects of earthquakes on the human environment. Check all that applyEarthquakes may lead to the falling of objects which may lead to loss of lifeEarthquakes are natural calamity but are preventable in larger citiesEarthquakes may damage transport networks making movement difficultA large-scale sea wave caused by an undersea earthquake/Tsunami may flood the coastal lowlands leading to destruction of agricultural landDisturbances caused by earthquakes lead to landslides which crush and bury people/propertyEarthquakes may lead to collapsing of underground mines which may lead to burying of minersEarthquakes cause panic/anxiety/emotional shockDestruction of property leads to evacuation/displacement of peopleStrong earthquakes cause damage to nuclear plants/sewerageAll of the above Choose two types of landslidesRock motionDebris fallScavengerAvalancheDecente Explain how each of the following factors influence mass wasting: ClimateAreas that receive low rainfall experience massive landslides on steep slopes/ areas that receive high rainfall have slow movement of rock materials down the slopeIn areas with large diurnal ranges of temperature there is expansion and contraction of soil particles which leads to movement of the soil particlesAlternate freezing and thawing encourage mass movement of rock and soil materialsArea of lower altitude experience more rainfall and more landslide due to rivers and rain water Explain how each of the following factors influence mass wasting: SlopeSteep slopes encourage faster movement of material down the slope.Gentle slopes have slow movement of materials down the slopeGentle slopes encourage faster movement of material down the slope.Steep slopes have slow movement of materials down the slope. State causes of soil creep Check all that applyPloughing on a slope/loosening the soil particlesWetting and drying of soil particlesPlanting too many trees on the slopeExternal forces such as earthquakes/ explosives/eruptions/heavy vehicles movementsFrost heaving beneath the soilAlternate heating and cooling of the soil particlesUndercutting of the base of the slope through road construction/miningAll of the above Using a diagram, describe the process of solifluctionModerately/gently sloping areas during winter water in the soil freezes: freezing the soilWhen the weather becomes warm the top soil thawsThe soil then freezes back again for a period of timeOver time the top soil becomes saturated with water while the sub- soil remains frozen (permafrost)The saturated mass of top soil creeps over the frozen groundThe process that is the opposite of perma frosting or permafrost You intend to carry out a field study on the effects of mass wasting within the local environment. Give four methods of data collection that you would use for the studyObservingAdministering questionnairesAnalyzing informationPhotographing/video recordingReport writingReading from secondary sources/viewing films/video clipsTravelingData presentation You intend to carry out a field study on the effects of mass wasting within the local environment. State four negative effects of mass wasting on the physical environment that you are likely to identifyDestruction of vegetationDereliction of land /scarsCooperative CreationBlockage of riversBuilding of high raiseExposure of land to soil erosionIndustrialization You intend to carry out a field study on the effects of mass wasting within the local environment.Give some follow-up activities you would be involved in after the field studyData analysis/discussion about findingsReport writingPhotographing/video recordingData presentationConsulting geography teachersDisplay photographs takenDrawing conclusionsAdministering questionnairesReading more on the topicSite Initial Visit Choose the three types of river erosionHeadward erosion /spring sappingVolcanic erosionVertical erosionLateral erosionHorizontal erosion Describe each of the following process of river erosion: AbrasionThe process involves the river transporting materialsThe materials are transported upstreamTransported materials are used by the river as tools for scouringThe load is hurled by the water against the banks and dragged along the river bedThe load chips off the rocks on the bank and river bed. The load being dragged smoothens the river bedThe eddy currents rotate the load in the hollows on the river bed grinding the rocks widening into potholesThe materials are finally transported downstream Describe each of the following process of river erosion: Abrasion: SolutionRiver water contains both organic and weak inorganic acids. It reacts with some minerals in some rocks in the river bed to form soluble minerals. The soluble minerals are carried downstream in solution form.River water contains only weak inorganic acids. It reacts with some minerals in some rocks in the river bed to form soluble minerals. The soluble minerals are carried upstream in solution form.River water flows over rocks with soluble minerals. The water dissolves soluble minerals to a solution. The minerals are carried away in solution.River water contains only organic acids. It reacts with some minerals in some rocks in the river bed to form soluble minerals. The soluble minerals are carried upstream in solution form.River water contains both organic and weak inorganic acids. It reacts with some minerals in some rocks in the river bed to form soluble minerals. The soluble minerals are carried upstream in solution form. Describe the characteristics of the upper stage of a river. Check all that applyThe gradient is steepThe river has a small loadThe flow of the river is slowVertical erosion is dominantThe cross profile of the valley is v-shaped. It has interlocking spursThe river valley is shallowThe river channel is wideSome parts of the river course have rapids/waterfalls/cataractsThe river volume is lowThe river channel is windingThe river water is salty What is river rejuvenation?Rejuvenation is the renewal of a river's erosive ability/activity/powerTrueFalse Give four causes of river rejuvenationIncrease in river dischargeChange in rock resistanceAvalancheUnequal regional subsidenceChange in Water densityRegional/local uplift of the land. Fall in sea level/drop in sea level Identify features that result from river rejuvenationKnick pointsRejuvenation terraces/paired terracesValley cataractsIncised meanders/in grown/entrenched meandersRejuvenation gorges/valley within a valleyRejuvenation sands/paired sands. Time is Up!